Firman Allah


28 March 2011


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Boat on the Nile

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Pigeon houses at Mit Gahmr (Delta), Egypt
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Pyramid of Sesostris II in El-Lahun, South of Fayoum, Egypt
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Fox on a pyramid of Cairo, Egypt
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Pyramid of king Snefrou, Egypt
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Philae’s temple, dedicated to Isis, Egypt
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Village of the ragmen in Cairo, Egypt
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Abou Simbel's temple, Nasser lake, Egypt
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Islands at Siwa oasis, Egypt
The oasis of Siwa was internationally famous long before Alexander the Great visited it in 331 bc, for it was the site of one of the biggest temples of Amen, the most powerful Egyptian god of the time. Its oracle was so renowned that the illustrious Macedonian conqueror crossed the Egyptian desert to consult it. According to legend, the priests confirmed his divine nature—a verdict that was convenient, as he had just been crowned pharaoh. During the Roman occupation, the temple of Amen fell into disuse, but the oasis remained. Its springs, famous for their medicinal properties, quenched the thirst of many a caravan on the way from the Mediterranean coast to central Africa. Today, many Egyptian, Roman, and medieval ruins survive in this area, which the Egyptian government would like to see added to UNESCO’s World Heritage list. This would earn it a grant toward the preservation of the archaeological site, which would no longer be solely Egypt’s responsibility but the shared responsibility of the organization’s 175 member countries.
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Ruins of the medieval citadel of Shali in the town of Siwa, Egypt
Founded in the thirteenth century, the citadel of Shali protected the inhabitants from pillagers for many years. But its walls built of kershef —salt bricks covered with clay and plaster—were no match for the violent rains of 1926. Three days of deluge left nothing but a mass of ruins, bearing witness to a vanishing style of architecture. Although some of the fortress’ houses are still inhabited, modern Siwa is chiefly built of concrete, clustering around its old town. Since 1998, the United Nations Human Settlements Program has encouraged young Siwa entrepreneurs to rediscover their cultural and architectural heritage. The region’s governor, who also would like to see this heritage preserved, has required all new buildings around the citadel of Shali to be built using traditional methods.
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Adrere Amellal Ecolodge» hotel, Siwa oasis, Egypt
Barely distinguishable from the surrounding landscape of salt lakes at the oasis of Siwa at the foot of the white mountain,» the Ecolodge is a luxury hotel—even though guests have neither electricity nor air conditioning—in the arid Egyptian desert. To cope with the extreme environment, the building—which was completed in 1997—takes advantage of local techniques that have been developed over 2,500 years: walls of salt-bearing rock extracted from the beds of lakes burned by the sun, and roof, insulation, ventilation, plaster, furniture, and accessories designed and made by 150 local craftsmen using the oasis’ own resources. Economizing in the transport of materials and people minimized energy consumption, while the use of local human resources revived the region’s economy. Since the Ecolodge was built, almost 600 people make a living from the revival of interest in the architecture of Siwa.
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Drying dates in a palm grove south of Cairo, Nile valley, Egypt
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The Unfinished Obelisk, Aswan, Egypt
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Wheat being bundled into sheaves by a fellah in the Nile valley, Egypt
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Small boats caught in water hyacinths on the Nile, Egypt
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Modern graves in a cemetery at Asyut, Nile valley, Egypt
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Road interrupted by a sand dune, Nile Valley, Egypt
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Outline of Birket Maraqi salt lake in the oasis of Siwa, Egypt
Under the burning sun of northwest Egypt, the evaporation of water from the shallower parts of this salt lake has cracked its bed of sand and mud, forming these extremely hard, rounded wrinkles. Here and there salt forms a white crust, tracing the outline of the bluish, stagnant pool. The salt concentration in the water is so high that no living organism can survive. However, the shores of these lakes are shaded by palm trees and olive trees, fed by the oasis’s 230 freshwater springs. Thus, Siwa’s 15,000 inhabitants grow 300,000 date palms and 70,000 olive trees. Fresh water is one of the scarcest resources on the planet, accounting for only 2.5 percent of the total volume of water on the Earth, and of that proportion, 77 percent is trapped as ice at the poles and in glaciers. Liquid fresh water is unequally distributed, being rare in the tropics but plentiful on the equator and in temperate regions. Even where it is abundant, it is still precious. Its quality is constantly deteriorating as a result of contamination from excess organic matter, fertilizers, and other chemicals released by agriculture, industry, and the general population.
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Necropolis, South El Minya, Egypt
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Abu Simbel, Nile Valley, Egypt

Goldfish market on eve of Noruz

Benua Antarktika - 1915

Ini adalah foto-foto berwarna Benua Antarktika yang terkenal yang di foto Frank Hurley awal perjalanan mengelilingi benua antartika sebagai bagian dari perjalanan Trans-Antartika Ekspedisi, pada tahun 1914-1917. Hurley adalah fotografer resmi pada ekspedisi itu.

Awal tahun 1915, mereka dan kapalnya 'Endurance' mengalami musibah terperangkap dalam es Antartika. Hurley berhasil menyelamatkan pelat fotografi dengan menyelam ke cengeng-air es di dalam kapal tenggelam pada Oktober 1915.

Sejarah Benua Antartika

merupakan benua yang meliputi Kutub Selatan Bumi. Tempat terdingin di muka bumi ini sebagian besar tertutup es sepanjang tahun. Meskipun legenda dan spekulasi tentang sebuah Terra Australis ("Tanah Selatan") sudah ada sejak zaman kuno, penemuan benua yang pertama kali diterima umum terjadi pada 1820 dan pendaratan yang pertama tercatat tahun 1821. Namun demikian, peta yang dibuat Laksamana Piri Reis tahun 1513 memuat sebuah benua selatan yang diduga sebagai pantai Antarktika. (Lihat juga Sejarah Antarktika).
Dengan luas 13.200.000 km², Antarktika adalah benua terluas kelima setelah Eurasia, Afrika, Amerika Utara, dan Amerika Selatan namun populasinya terkecil jauh di bawah yang lain (umumnya dihuni oleh para peneliti dan ilmuwan untuk batas waktu tertentu saja). Benua ini juga memiliki ketinggian tanah rata-rata tertinggi, kelembaban rata-rata terendah, dan suhu rata-rata terendah di antara semua benua di bumi.

Antarktika merupakan zona bebas, walaupun sampai saat ini masih ada beberapa negara di dunia yang mengajukan klaim kepemilikan wilayah di benua.

dipetik dari blog haxim

23 March 2011

Kapal Induk Tertua di Dunia

Kapal induk tertua di dunia milik Angkatan Laut Inggeris berhasil ditemukan di bawah Sungai Thames. Meskipun begitu, yang tampak hanyalah bongkahan berkarat.

Meskipun dengan panjang 58 kaki, kapal Thorneycroft Seaplane Lighter keluaran tahun 1918 ini merupakan kapal amfibi modern pertama milik Angkatan Laut Inggeris. “Kapal itu tampak kecil tapi menyebabkan perkembangan besar terhadap kapal induk besar modern,” ujar kepala Museum Fleet Air Arm, Jon Jefferies.

Kapal tersebut dibuang di sungai seperti benda tidak berguna meskipun menjadi saksi utama Perang Dunia Pertama. Kini kapal tersebut sedang diperbaiki oleh ahli di Museum Fleet Air Arm di Somerset, Inggeris.

Direktur museum Graham Mottram mengaku sempat putus asa untuk menemukan salah satu kapal yang berasal dari awal abad ke-20. Setelah melihat kapal induk itu, Mottram mengatur agar bisa diangkat dari air dan dibawa ke museum untuk diperbaiki.

“Saya sangat menyadari kapal itu sangat berharga tapi saya terkejut bisa menemukan salah satunya yang masih utuh,” kata Mottram lagi.